(UNDER COMPLETION - UNDER COMPLETION)
1. SCIENTIFIC BACKGROUND
1.1. The series of five papers on hadronic mechanics scheduled at Infinite Energy and printed at the
Journal of New Energy
1.2. Official release by Toups Technology Licensing of the independently certified, over-unity of 2.78 of Santilli's hadronic reactor in its first construction
1.3. In preparation.
2. THE COMPLAINT
3. DOCUMENTED ORIGINATION AND HISTORY OF THE LAWSUIT AGAINST INFINITE ENERGY AND PLAINTIIFF'S OPPOSITION TO MOTION TO DISMISS BY MALLOVE ET AL.
4. DOCUMENTED ORIGINATION AND HISTORY OF THE LAWSUIT AGAINST PHYSICS ESSAY AND PLAINTIIFF'S OPPOSITION TO MOTION TO DISMISS BY PANARELLA ET AL.
5. PLAINTIFF'S MOTION FOR A JUDICIAL INJUNCTIVE ORDER TO PROHIBIT INFINITE ENERGY FROM PUBLISHING ADDITIONAL DEFAMATORY STATEMENTS AND PLAGIARIZED WORKS FOLLOWING THE FILING OF THE COMPLAINTS AND DURING THE JUDICIAL ITERIM
6. PLAINTIFF'S MOTION TO ADD TWO MILLION DOLLARS
TO THE PLEA OF FINANCIAL COMPENSATION FROM INFINITE ENERGY BECAUSE OF PUBLICATION
OF DEFAMATORY STATMENTS AND COPYRIGHT INFRIINGMENTS FOLLOWING THE FILING
OF THE COMPLAINT
7. PLAINTIFF'S MOTION TO ADD AS DEFENDANTS ALL REMAINING EDITORS OF INFINITE ENERGY AND INCREASE THE PLEA OF FINANCIAL COMPENSATION BY THREE MILLION DOLLARS
8. MOTION TO ACCEPT EXPERTS REVIEWERS
9. Rather than dismiss the case, the Federal Judge asked Dr. Santilli to prepare two Amended Complaints. The second dated April 27, 2001, is here enclosed. It is instructive reading for both scientific crooks and victims.
JOURNAL OF NEW ENERGIES, Vol. 4, issue no. 1, pages 4-312, 1999
THE PHYSICAL LAWS OF NEW CLEAN ENERGIES AND FUELS AS PREDICTED BY HADRONIC MECHANICS,
PAPERS I, II, III, IV, AND V.
Ruggero Maria Santilli
President, The Institute for Basic Research
P. O. Box 1577, Palm Harbor, FL 34682, U.S.A.
Following various requests, I provide below a general outline of the
above special issue, extended summaries of the five papers, and
their Tables of Content.
The five papers report, in a language accessible to the general scientific audience, systematic research on new energies and fuels conducted at the particle, nuclear, and molecular levels, which I initiated at Harvard University in 1978 under DOE contracts ER-78-S-02-47420.A000, AS02-78ER04742, DE-ACO2-80ER10651. I then continued the research in collaboration with several mathematicians, theoreticians, experimentalists, solid state physicists, chemists and biologists at The Institute for Basic Research (then in Cambridge, Massachusetts) and at various other institutions under DOE contracts DE-ACO2-80ER-10651.A001, and DE-ACO2-80ER10651.A002. Subsequently, the research was continued under financial support by Hadronic Press, Inc., then in Nonantum, Massachusetts. More recently, the research was completed under logistic and financial support by Toups Technology Licensing, a public company in Largo, Florida. Far from being a presentation of vague academic character, and as stated beginning with Paper I, the primary objective of the series is strictly pragmatical-concrete-industrial. It consists in the use of hadronic mechanics for the identification of the physical laws, geometries, and conditions under which new clean energies and fuels are possible, and the recommendation of concrete and specific embodiments, called “Hadronic Reactors”, for the best possible realization of said laws, geometries, and conditions. For that purpose, the papers classify the reactors into three separate types: Hadronic Reactors of Class I, which are solely based on new effects in the interior of hadrons; Hadronic Reactors of Class II, which are based on new effects in the structure of nuclei with possible contributions from Class I; and Hadronic Reactors of Class III, which are based on new effects at the atomic-molecular structures, with possible contributions of Classes I and II. Numerous Hadronic Reactors under Patent Pending are then outlined. The reactors are solely possible under the validity of hadronic mechanics, and, more particularly, under new structure models of hadrons, nuclei, and molecules, permitted by hadronic mechanics and outlined in Papers III, IV and V, respectively, jointly with available experimental verifications. As an illustration, the assumption that three quarks are the constituents of the neutron prohibits any possible utilization of the energy released in its decay, trivially, because the quarks must be confined. On the contrary, the assumption that the physical constituents of the neutrons are one proton and one electron as originally conceived by Rutherford (which model is prohibited by quantum mechanics, yet fully admitted by hadronic mechanics), does indeed permits the utilization of the clean energy of Class I contained in the neutron, because the emission of the structural electron can be stimulated. A similar, mutually exclusive situation occurs between the reactors of Classes II and III and the conventional quantum models of nuclear and molecular structures. Toups Technology Licensing had a crucial role in the completion of the research presented in the five papers, by conducting fundamental anomalous measurements outlined in Paper V. These measurements permitted the successful construction of the the first Hadronic Reactor of Class III which has resulted to be over-unity of 2.78 according to the independent certification by Motorfuelers, Inc., a Florida testing laboratory, in its first prototype version (see Section II in this web page).
PAPER I: INSUFFICIENCIES OF QUANTUM MECHANICS
This first paper begins with the statement of objectives of the series: the identification of the basic physical laws and related technological realizations of energies and fuels, which: are new, in the sense that they cannot be predicted and treated via quantum mechanics; are clean, in the sense that they do not produce radiations, waste, or exhausts harmful to humans and the environment; and are real, in the sense that they are realizable with current technologies in a way having practical, thus industrial and consumer value. This paper then provides a systematic presentation of the limitations of quantum mechanics in particle physics, nuclear physics, superconductivity, chemistry, biology, gravitation, astrophysics, and cosmology. These limitations are a necessary pre-requisite for the presentation of a generalization (also called covering) of quantum mechanics known as hadronic mechanics, which outlined in the subsequent paper of this series. It is stressed that, by no means, the series seeks “violations” of quantum mechanics, but merely the identification of novel, generally non-Hamiltonian conditions and effects at short distances under which the theory is inapplicable, because not constructed for these new scopes.
PAPER II: THE NEW MECHANICS
Paper II is devoted to the outline of the covering mechanics used in these studies, hadronic mechanics, originally proposed by Santilli in 1978 jointly with its basic equations and related new mathematics. Hadronic mechanics was subsequently developed by numerous mathematicians, theoreticians, and experimentalists, and has now reached operational maturity for applications in the industry. The paper begins with a review of the catastrophic inconsistencies suffered by all generalized theories with a nonlinear, nonlocal or nonunitary structure, due to their lack of invariance, with consequential need of new mathematics for their invariant representation. The paper then outlines three, progressively generalized, new mathematics called iso-, geno- and hyper-mathematics, which have been constructed for the invariant treatment of nonlinear, nonlocal, and nonunitary theories representing closed-isolated-reversible systems, open-nonconservative-irreversible systems, and multi-valued-irreversible systems, respectively. The fundamental assumption of all these mathematics and mechanics is the generalization of the unity, from its trivial value +1 dating back to biblical times, to a positive-definite, but otherwise arbitrary function, matrix, or integro-differential operator. The entire mathematics and mechanics are then reconstructed to admit such a generalized units at all levels,. with no exception (to avoid the catastrophic inconsistencies indicated earlier). All characteristics, interactions and effects outside quantum mechanics (that is, not representable with a Hamiltonian) are represented with the above generalized unit, which, being the fundamental invariant of the theory, does indeed permit the achievement of an invariant, axiomatically consistent formulation of nonlinear, nonlocal and nonunitary effects. as expected in deep overlapping of the wavepackets of particles. The paper then presents an outline of the nonrelativistic and relativistic, iso-, geno-, and hyper-mechanics, with particular emphasis to: 1) The identity of quantum and hadronic mechanics at the abstract, realization free level; 2) The verification by isomechanics of all conventional quantum laws, such as Heisenberg’s uncertainties, Pauli’s exclusion principle, causality, etc., only expressed via a broader formalism; and 3) A very simple method for the construction of concrete hadronic models accessible to all, which consist of simple nonunitary transforms of quantum models. The paper includes a detailed proof of the direct universality of hadronic mechanics, which consistss, on mathematical grounds, of its formulation over the most general known numbers and fields, the iso-, geno-, and hyper-octonions (that is, numbers defined with respect to a generalized Hermitean, nonhermitean and nonhermitean multivalued unit). The physical counterpart of the above direct universality is the capability by hadronic mechanics to admit in an axiomatically consistent and invariant way of all infinitely-possible, nonlinear, nonlocal, and nonunitary theories (universality), directly in the frame of the experimenter (direct universality). Readers should be aware that a technical understanding of this direct universality requires a technical knowledge of the catastrophic inconsistencies of conventional generalized theories and their resolution via the new mathematics. particular emphasis is given in this paper to the identification of Santilli’s iso-, geno- and hyper-special relativities, including the directly universal liftings of the underlying Minkowskian geometry, the Lorentz-Poincare’-symmetry, and the physical axioms. The fundamental representation is the locally varying character of the speed of light within physical media, as established in our environment (such as the refraction of light). As shown in subsequent papers, the deviations from the speed of light in vacuum, and the invariant representation via Santilli’s isospecial relativity, are at the foundation of all new clean energies and fuels studied in these papers, and their realization via Hadronic Reactors. Experimental verifications of hadronic mechanics and related new relativities in particle physics, nuclear physics, chemistry and other fields are presented in Papers III, IV and V, respectively. These studies imply the clear identification beyond credible doubts of Conte’s plagiarism of the basic concepts, laws, and equations of hadronic mechanics and the plagiarism of Santilli’s isospecial relativity, without the quotation of the specific papers of their origination, in Conte’s documented knowledge of their existence.
PAPER III: NEUTRON STRUCTURE AND NEW ENERGIES OF CLASS I
Paper III initiates the application of hadronic mechanics to new energies, beginning with the classification of the new energies into: Class I, when of particle origin; Class II, when of nuclear origin, with possible contributions of Class I; and Class III, when of atomic-molecular origin, with possible contributions of Classes I and II. As a necessary pre-requisite for the study of the new energies of Class I, this paper outlines the rather numerous experimental verifications of hadronic mechanics in particle physics, astrophysics, gravitation, and cosmology. The paper then outlines new structure models of unstable hadrons with physical constituents emitted in the spontaneous decays with the lowest mode, which models are strictly prohibited by quantum mechanics, yet readily possible with the covering hadronic mechanics thanks to the new nonlinear, nonlocal and nonunitary effects due to deep overlapping of the wavepackets of the hadronic constituents. The new structure models with ordinary physical constituents are at the foundation of new, clean energies of Class I. Particular attention is devoted to the first achievement by Santilli in 1990 of the representation, via hadronic mechanics, of all characteristics of the neutron as a bound state of one proton and one electron totally immersed in its interior according to Rutherford’s historical legacy. The plagiarism by E. Conte in 1999 of the main equations and results obtained nine years earlier without quotation of the original derivation (in Conte’s documented awareness), is briefly indicated. The paper then reviews the first experimental verification of Rutherford’s conception of the neutron conducted by the late Italian priest-physicist don Borghi et al. A subsequent equivalent verification claimed by Conte et al. is indicated too, although with reservations due to the need of independent verifications following Conte’s dismissal of the scientific priority by don Borghi et. al, with consequential loss of scientific credibility. The paper then presents an example of new energies of Class I, those based on the hypothesis first submitted by Santilli in 1994 that the neutron can be stimulated to decay, thus releasing the rather large energy of 1.294 MeV per decay. The related experimental verification by Gr. Tsagas et al. is also outlined. The resulting new knowledge is applied to new means for the recycling of highly radioactive nuclear waste, via its stimulated decay. The paper concludes with the identification of the physical laws and conditions under which new energies of Class I are possible, and the proposal of various new experiments.
PAPER IV: STRUCTURE OF NUCLEI AND NEW ENERGIES OF CLASS II
Paper IV is devoted to new energies of Class II, those originating at the nuclear level, and contains: 1) a more technical identification of the rather numerous limitations of quantum mechanics in nuclear physics; 2) evidence of the capability by hadronic mechanics of resolving said limitations; and 3) the achievement by hadronic mechanics of the first known exact-numerical representations of various nuclear experimental data, which are currently represented only in an approximate way; 4) a new structure model of nuclei composed by protons and electrons, which is strictly prohibited by quantum mechanics, yet fully permitted by the consistent treatment of Rutherford’s conception of the neutron of the preceding paper; and 5) various additional experimental verifications of the treatment of nuclear physics via the covering hadronic mechanics. It is then shown that the emerging new structure model of nuclei does indeed permit the conception and treatment of new, clean energies of Class II (those occurring for totally ionized atoms), essentially based on stimulated nuclear transmutations without the emission of neutrons of other harmful radiations. The latter study begins with the identification of the physical laws, geometries and conditions of new energies of Class II, as predicted by hadronic mechanics. The study then concludes with the presentation of various Hadronic Reactors, that is, specific and concrete embodiments suggested by hadronic mechanics, either for new energies, or for improving the efficiency of existing energies of nuclear type. Particular attention is provided to the origin of thunder. It is shown that thunder cannot be explained in a numerical-quantitative way via conventional chemical-physical means (e.g., the rapid displacement of an excessively minute volume of air), since its explanation requires the instantaneous availability of very large amount of energy (equivalent to hundred of tons of explosive). Evidence obtained via bubbles of air in amber is recalled, according to which our atmosphere contained only 50% of nitrogen about 100 million years ago, thus establishing the existence in our planet of a process responsible for the increase of nitrogen to about 80%. After the exclusion of volcanic, asteroid, or other origin, lightning emerges as the most plausible process synthesizing nitrogen from carbon plus deuteron (or carbon plus protons and electrons). It is shown that the latter hypothesis does indeed permit a numerical;-quantitative explanation of thunder, because of the capability of releasing all the needed energy with a mere efficiency of one stimulated synthesis of nitrogen per ten billion molecules of air. The most important hadronic reactors of Class II are suggested via simple embodiments essentially inspired by lighting, which reproduce it within a liquid rich in deuteron and carbon, or within suitable gases. It is stressed that the stimulated nuclear transmutations here considered occur at about 5,000 C, thus being new, in the sense of have no connection to both, hot and cold fusions. Therefore, hadronic mechanics has permitted the identification of a new class of nuclear reactions with new physical laws, and a probability of practical realization much greater than that of both, hot and cold fusions. Other Hadronic Reactors are based on other processes all verifying the hadronic laws of Class II.
PAPER V: STRUCTURE OF MOLECULES, NEW, CLEAN, FUELS,
AND NEW ENERGIES OF CLASS III
The study of new energies and fuels of Class V (those occurring at the atomic-molecular level with possible contributions of nuclear and particle type) requires the entire knowledge of the preceding four papers, plus new knowledge on molecular structure presented in this paper. The paper begins with an outline of the rather serious environmental problems created by fossil fuels, which are only partially known to the public for evident political reasons, such as: 1) Largest production in our environment of carcinogenic substances via the combustion exhausts, at whose comparison the carcinogenic substances we ingest in food is quantitatively ignorable; 2) Oxygen depletion in our atmosphere at times below the minimum level required for proper heart function; 3) Green house effect due to excessive emission of carbon dioxide over the amount that can be processed by the depleting forests, and other serious problems. Environmentalists are suggested to turn their efforts into scientific activities, which can only occur via the actual measurement of carcinogenic substances in our urban atmosphere, the actual measurement of local oxygen content, and the actual measurement of local carbon-dioxide. These measurements should then be compared with known standards, and the information should then be propagated to the public. The above unreassuring scenario re-affirms the need for new clean fuels, that is, fuels not permitted by quantum chemistry by their very definition (Paper I). The paper then passes to the outline of: the rather serious insufficiencies of quantum molecular models; a new model of molecules permitted by hadronic covering of quantum chemistry recently constructed by RR. M. Santilli and D. D. Shillady, which resolves said inconsistencies; and achieves the first representation of molecular characteristics exact to the seventh digit (while quantum chemistry misses about to 2%). The paper then reviews the new chemical species called Magnecules,which are composed of ordinary atoms and molecules under a new strong magnetic bond originating in the plane polarization of the orbits of valence electrons. The rather vast experimental verification of magnecules achieved at independent laboratories by Toups Technology Licensing is outlined, jointly with other advances in molecular structure. It is then shown that the new model of molecular structure permitted by hadronic chemistry, and the new chemical species of magnecules, do indeed permit the prediction and quantitative treatment of new clean energies and fuels of Class III. Particular emphasis is dedicated to the discovery by Santilli at Toups Technology Licensing of a new reactor, called PlasmaArcFlow Reactor (Copyrighted, trademark, and Patents Pending) predicted by by hadronic mechanics and chemistry, which permits the production of clean combustible gases, called MagneGas (copyrighted and Patents Pending) resolving the indicated environmental problems of fossil fuels (no appreciable carcinogenic substances in the exhausts, positive oxygen balance, and carbon dioxide down to small percentages which can be controlled via chemical sponges). The new technology is quite easy in its practical realization, and essentially consists in the flow of a certain liquid within a certain electric arc. The prediction that this process is over-unity for at least 1.69 is presented in Section 3.12 of Paper V for independent verifications (see the outcome of its certification in the following Section II of this web page). The paper then identifies the hadronic laws, geometries and conditions for new energies of Class III, and shows that hadronic mechanics supports in full, although under novel perspectives, most of the currently known new energies of Class III with clear experimental backing, yet current poor efficiency, including: the electromagnetically pinched deuteron energy; the so-called cold fusion; Mills’ Blacklight; and other new energies. It is shown that all these new energies have not achieved efficiencies of industrial relevance until now because of their lack of verification of hadronic laws of Class III. A number of Hadronic Reactors of Class III are then proposed, including various Hadronic Fusion Reactors, which are based on the most efficient possible realization of all hadronic laws, geometries, and conditions of Class III. Thanks are expressed to several individuals and corporations in three pages of acknowledgments, with particular reference to: the Department of Energy and the Hadronic Press, Inc., for funding the research over a protracted period of time; the Journal of New energy, for publishing all together the series of five articles; and Toups Technology Licensing, for permitting and supporting measurements on fundamental aspects contrary to the predictions of quantum mechanics and chemistry, which measurements have now acquired a truly basic role for new, clean energies and fuels.
JOURNAL OF NEW ENERGIES, Vol. 4, issue no. 1, pages 4-312, 1999
PHYSICAL LAWS OF NEW CLEAN ENERGIES AND FUELS
AS PREDICTED BY HADRONIC MECHANICS,
PAPERS I, II, III, IV, AND V.
by R. M. Santilli
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAPER I: INSUFFICIENCIES OF QUANTUM MECHANICS, page 10
1. INTRODUCTION, page 10
1.1. The Fundamental Open Problem of the Emerging New Energies, 10
1.2. Definition of New Energies, 13
1.3. Statement of Objectives, 15
2. INSUFFICIENCIES OF QUANTUM MECHANICS IN VARIOUS FIELDS, 16
2.1. Conditions of Validity of a Given Theory, 17
2.2. Insufficiencies of Quantum Mechanics in Atomic Physics, 19
2.3. Insufficiencies of Quantum Mechanics in Nuclear Physics, 21
2.4. Insufficiencies of Quantum Mechanics in Particle Physics, 29
2.5. Insufficiencies of Quantum Mechanics in Superconductivity, 32
2.6. Insufficiencies of Quantum Mechanics in Gravitation, Astrophysics and Cosmology, 33
2.7. Insufficiencies of Quantum Mechanics in Chemistry, 33
2.8. Insufficiencies of Quantum Mechanics in Biology, 36
3. INSUFFICIENCIES OF SPECIAL AND GENERAL RELATIVITIES, 38
3.1. Statement of Objectives, 38
3.2. Insufficiencies of Special Relativity, 38
3.3. Inconsistencies of General Relativity, 40
PAPER II: THE NEW MECHANICS, 46
2.ORIGINS OF THE INSUFFICIENCIES OF QUANTUM MECHANICS, 49
3.TE “MAJESTIC” AXIOMATIC CONSISTENCY OF QUANTUM MECHANICS, 50
4.CATASTROPHIC INCONSISTENCY OF BROADER THEORIES BASED ON
CONVENTIONAL MATHEMATICS, 52
5. HE NOVEL ISO–, GENO– AND HYPER–MATHEMATICS AND THEIR
6.CLASSICAL AND OPERATOR ISO-, GENO-, AND HYPER-MECHANICS, 61
6.1. Introduction, 61
6.2. Nonrelativistic Classical Isomechanics, 62
6.3. Nonrelativistic Isoquantization, 63
6.4. Nonrelativistic Isomechanics, 64
6.5. Relativistic Isomechanics, 71
6.6. Geno- and Hyper-mechanics, 71
7.ISO-, GENO-, HYPER-RELATIVITIES AND COSMOLOGIES, 74
8.ISO-, GENO-, AND HYPER-CONDUCTIVITY, 79
9.ISO-, GENO- AND HYPER-CHEMISTRY, 80
10.SIMPLE CONSTRUCTION OF CLASSICAL AND OPERATOR GENERALIZED
PAPER III: NEUTRON STRUCTURE AND NEW ENERGIES
OF CLASS I, 84
1.CLASSIFICATION OF NEW ENERGIES, 84
2.EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATIONS OF HADRONIC MECHANICS IN
PARTICLE PHYSICS, ASTROPHYSICS, AND COSMOLOGY, 87
2.1. Statement of Objectives, 87
2.2. Insufficiencies of Special Relativity and the
Universality of its Isotopic Covering, 87
2.3. Experimental Verification with Data on the Local Speed of Light, 88
2.4. Experimental Verifications Via Phenomenological
Calculations of Hadronic Media, 90
2.5. Experimental Verification with the Behavior of
the Meanlife of Unstable Hadrons with Speed, 91
2.6. Experimental Verification Via Data on the
Bose-Einstein Correlation, 95
2.7. Experimental Verifications in Gravitation, 99
2.8. Experimental Verifications in Astrophysics, 101
2.9. Experimental Verifications in Cosmology, 104
3. THE NEW STRUCTURE MODEL OF HADRONS WITH PHYSICAL CONSTITUENTS, 106
3.1. Statement of Objectives, 106
3.2. The Forgotten Legacy of Rutherford, 107
3.3. Hadronic Two-Body Bound States, 109
3.4. The Structure Model ĻĮ = (e+, e-)HM, 114
3.5. The Structure Model n = [pŖ+, eŖ-]HM, 117
3.6. Don Borghi’s Verifications of the Synthesis of
the Neutron from Protons and Electrons, 123
3.7. Compatibility of the New Structure Model of
Hadrons with SU(3)-Color Classification, 125
4. APPLICATION TO NEW ENERGIES OF CLASS I, 127
4.1. The Stimulated Decay of the Neutron, 127
4.2. Hadronic Energy (Copyrighted and Patent Pending), 129
4.3. Tsagas’ Experimental Verification of Hadronic Energy, 133
4.4. Application to the Stimulated Decay of Nuclear Waste
(Copyrighted and Patent Pending), 135
4.5. Physical Laws of New Energies of Class I
(Copyrighted and Patent Pending), 137
5.PROPOSED NEW EXPERIMENTS FOR NEW ENERGIES, 138
PAPER IV: STRUCTURE OF NUCLEI AND NEW ENERGIES OF CLASS II, 143
1. INTRODUCTION, 143
1.1. Statement of Objectives, 143
1.2. Lack of Exact Character of Quantum Mechanics in Nuclear Physics, 146
1.2.1.Insufficiencies of quantum mechanics for the nuclear force, 146
1.2.2.Insufficiencies of quantum mechanics for the nuclear structure, 147
1.2.3.Insufficiencies of quantum mechanics for the representation
of nuclear magnetic moments, 148
1.2.4.Insufficiencies of quantum mechanics for the
representation of other nuclear data, 149
1.2.5.Insufficiencies of quantum mechanics for the representation
of dissipative nuclear reactions, 150
1.3. Primary Reasons for the Insufficiencies of Quantum
Mechanics and the Selection of a Covering Theory, 150 2. APPLICATIONS AND VERIFICATIONS OF HADRONIC MECHANICS
IN NUCLEAR PHYSICS, 153
2.1. Main Structural Lines, 153
2.2. Reconstruction of the Exact Isospin Symmetry, 155
2.3. Exact Representation of Total Nuclear Magnetic Moments, 158
2.3.1.The historical hypothesis, 159
Incompatibility of the historical hypothesis with the special relativity, 159
2.3.3.Compatibility of the historical hypothesis with
the isospecial relativity, 160
The isodirac equation, 161
2.3.5.Conventional values of angular momentum and spin,
yet mutated magnetic moments, 162
2.3.6.Exact representation of the deuteron magnetic moment, 163
2.3.7.Exact representation of all remaining nuclear magnetic moments, 165
2.4. Exact Representation of Rauch’s 4Ļ Interferometric Measurements, 165
2.5. Hadronic Model of the Deuteron Structure, 171
2.5.1.Conceptual foundations for nuclei, 171
2.5.2.Conceptual foundations for the deuteron, 171
2.5.3.Deuteron stability, 173
2.5.4.Deuteron size, 173
2.5.5.Deuteron charge, 174
2.5.6.Deuteron spin, 175
2.5.7.Deuteron force, 176
2.5.8.Deuteron binding energy, 178
2.5.9.Deuteron total energy, 178
2.5.10.Deuteron magnetic moment, 180
2.5.11.Deuteron electric dipole moment and parity, 181
2.6.Nuclear Forces, 181
2.7. Nuclear Models, 182
3. PHYSICAL LAWS OF NEW ENERGIES OF CLASS II AS PREDICTED BY
HADRONIC MECHANICS, 182
3.1.Basic Equations for stimulated Nuclear Transmutations, 182
3.2.Physical Laws of New Energies of Class II (Copyrighted
and Patent Pending), 188
3.3.The Hadronic Lithium Reactor (Copyrighted and Patent Pending), 190
3.4.The Hadronic Helium Reactor (Copyrighted, Patent Pending), 195
3.5.The Hadronic Nitrogen Reactor (Copyrighted and Patent Pending), 198
3.6.Hadronic Reactor to Synthesize Natural Element (Copyrighted
and Patent Pending), 202
3.7. Concluding remarks, 202
PAPER V: STRUCTURE OF MOLECULES, NEW CLEAN FUELS, AND
NEW CLEAN, ENERGIES OF CLASS III, 205
1. INTRODUCTION, 206
1.1. Statement of Objectives, 206
1.2. Major Environmental Problems Addressed
by Toups Technology Licensing, 207
1.4. Hadronic Mechanics, Superconductivity, and
Chemistry, and the New Model of Electron Bonding, 215
1.5. The New Chemical Species of Magnecules, 222
2.EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF HADRONIC MECHANICS IN
SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND CHEMISTRY, 228
2.1. Conceptual Foundations of Electron Bonding and Clustering, 228
2.2. Basic Equations for Electron Bonding and Clustering, 231
2.3. Experimental Verifications in Superconductivity, 235
2.4. Experimental Verifications in the Hydrogen Molecule, 239
2.5. Experimental Verification in the Water Molecule, 245
3.NEW COMBUSTIBLE GASES RESOLVING THE ALARMING ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
CAUSED BY FOSSIL FUELS DEVELOPED AT TOUPS TECHNOLOGY LICENSING, 249
3.1. Creation of Magnecules in Gases, 249
3.2. Definition of Magnecules and their Anomalies
(Copyrighted and Patent Pending), 251
3.3. Necessary Conditions for the Detection of Magnecules
(Copyrighted and Patent Pending), 253
3.4. Spectroscopic Evidence of Magnecules in Gases.
(Copyrighted and Patent Pending), 255
3.5. Origin of Anomalous Energy Content
(Copyrighted and Patent Pending), 269
3.6. Creation of Magnecules in Liquids
(Copyrighted and Patent Pending), 270
3.7. Photographic Evidence of Magnecules in Liquids
(Copyrighted and Patent Pending), 271
3.8. Spectroscopic Evidence of Magnecules in Liquids
(Copyrighted and Patent Pending), 271
3.9. Experimental Verification of Mutated Physical
Characteristics (Copyrighted and Patent Pending) , 274
3.1 Evidence of magnecules in solids (Copyrighted and Patent Pending), 282
3.11.Industrial Applications of the New TTL Technology of Magnetically Polarized Substances (Copyrighted and Patent Pending), 282 3.12.The New TTL MagneGasTM Resolving the Alarming Environmental
Problems Caused by Fossil Fuel (Copyright, TradeMark,
and Patent Pending), 283
4.NEW CLEAN ENERGIES OF CLASS III, 287
4.1. Introduction, 287
4.2. Physical Laws of New Energies of Class III
(Copyrighted and Patent Pending), 288
4.3. Application of Hadronic Mechanics to the
Electromagnetically Pinched, 289
Deuterium Energy (Copyrighted and Patent Pending), 289
4.4. Application of Hadronic Mechanics to Cold Fusion
(Copyrighted and Patent Pending), 292
4.5. Application of Hadronic Mechanics to Mills’ Blacklight
(Copyrighted and Patent Pending), 304
5.CONCLUDING REMARKS, 307
BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES OF R. M. SANTILLI
The Institute for Basic Research has
a limited number of complimentary copies of the special issue
available to qualified researchers on a first come first serve basis.
TOUPS TECHNOLOGY LICENSING ANNOUNCES THE INDEPENDENT CERTIFICATION
OVER-UNITY OF SANTILLI’S FIRST HADRONIC REACTOR IN ITS FIRST PROTOTYPE
Ruggero Maria Santilli
1: THE ANNOUNCEMENT
According to the official release of Toups Technology Licensing (TTL), a public company in Largo, Florida (tel. 727-548 0918), which can be inspected at http://biz.yahoo.com/prnews/990824/fl_toups_t_1.html, the independent chain of testing laboratories Motorfuelers, Inc. (Tel. 727-572 9762), has released a written and signed certification (reproduced in Figure 3 below) that Santilli’s PlasmaArcFlow Reactor is 2.78 times over-unity as calculated from the production of the new, clean, combustible MagneGas^TM with anomalous chemical composition and energy content (see Paper V of Ref. ), plus heat.
The independent measurements and verifications were conducted by
Motorfuelers, Inc., on September 18 and 19, 1999, and
included: 1) Calibrating the cumulative wattmeter provided by
WattWatchers of Manchester, New Hampshire, which was used to
measurement electric energy drawn from the panel; 2) The verification
of all dimensions and weights, including the volume of the column used
for gas production, the volume and weight of the liquid used in the
process, etc.; 3) Independent repetition of numerous measurements in
production of the gas, energy content, etc., calculation of the average
values, and identification of the errors.
2: THE REACTOR
The Hadronic PlasmaArcFlow Reactor is remarkably simple in its main structural features (see Figure 1) and is essentially constituted by an all encompassing rectangular metal reactor of 1/4” wall thickness, and the content of 15 gallons of a special liquid, generally rich in H, O and C according to certain pre-determined proportions. Among a variety of possible liquids, the over-unity was certified for a mixture of antifreeze (as conventionally available in automotive stores), saturated with brown sugar. A Miller Welder model Summit Arc 1,000 with 50 Kw which, following about 35% loss in the rectifier, delivers a DC arc with about 35 V and 1,000 A between two electrodes in the interior of the reactor and completely immersed within said liquid, which electrodes are constituted by a stationary 3/4”x3” tungsten rod anode (which does not consume), and a 3/4” carbon rod cathode (which does consume and must be fed into the arc). The liquid is then forced through the arc by a re-circulating pump of variable flow whose maximal flow is 65 gallons per minute.
FIGURE 1: A schematic view of Santilli's PlasmaArcFlow Reactor
3: THE PROCESS
The PlasmaArcFlow Reactor causes the following process: 1) The arc first decomposes the molecules of the liquids into their individual atomic constituents; 2) The arc then ionizes the individual atoms, by creating in its immediate surroundings a plasma of about 5,000 C essentially constituted by mostly naked nuclei of hydrogen, oxygen and carbon, plus a large number of electrons; 3) According to a flow that must be predetermined depending on the liquid used, the electrical energy and other factors, the PlasmaArcFlow process continuously removes said plasma from the arc itself immediately following its formation; 4) When in contact with the liquid at ordinary temperature outside the arc, the nuclei of H, O, and C reconstruct their atomic clouds via conventional electron capture, and cool down; 5) A number of conventional chemical reactions then occur, resulting in a gas which is essentially constituted by about 40%-45% of H2, 35%-40% CO, 3%-5% O2, 1%-2% CO2, 1%-3% of N, and ppm of other substances.
4: THE ANOMALIES
Santilli’s PlasmaArcFlow Reactor, its processes, and the resulting MagneGas are deceptively simple. The liquid itself is anomalous (that is NOT treatable via quantum chemistry) because, after the first flow of all the liquid through the arc, LC-MS/URD measurements establish a completely new chemical structure composed by magnecules (see the experimental evidence in Paper V in Ref. ). The process connected to the flow of the liquid through the electric arc at 1,000 A and 35 V DC are of a complexity beyond our comprehension, because involving particle physics events, nuclear physics events, atomic processes, chemical-molecular events, a superconducting setting (since the resistance of water under the arc collapse to fractional ohms, thus being the best superconductor currently available), and other features. Bigger anomalies occur in the MagneGas itself, because it is a gas created under the extremely intense magnetic fields of the arc at 1,000 A (of the order of several Tesla). As a result of this environment, electron orbits cannot have their conventional space distributions, and are instead polarized. When inspected under GC-MS/IRD equipment, the MagneGas produced by the reactor has a dramatically anomalous behavior, which is beyond any hope of predictive or descriptive capacities by quantum chemistry, but which can be predicted and described by Santilli-Shillady hadronic chemistry (see the outline of experimental verification in Paper V of Ref. ). Most important for these lines is the anomalous energy content of MagneGas due, not only to the new magnetic bonds, but also new means of storing energy within conventional molecules, including noncombustible gases such as CO2, as established by direct experimental evidence in the energy content, as well as the appearance of new peaks in the IR signatures (recall that IR peaks denote bonds). In summary, individuals who attempt to adapt all these anomalies to quantum mechanics, a theory that will soon belong... to the past millennium, cut themselves out of science, the only possible science requiring the opposite attitude, the adaptation of a broader theory to the experimental evidence. At any rate, quantum mechanics and chemistry cannot possibly explain all the above large anomalies, while the covering hadronic mechanics and chemistry do.
5: THE CERTIFICATION OF OVER-UNITY
During the two days of tests, Motorfuelers technicians activated the electric DC generator, produced MagneGas, which was then passed via a hose to a transparent (polyurethane) tower filled up with tap water, with marks indicating the displacement of one cubit foot of water. After each cubit foot, the gas is pumped out, the tower is replenished with water, and another cubic foot of gas is produced again. The electric energy from the panel required to produce each cubit foot of MagneGas was measured via the previously calibrated cumulative wattmeter. As a result of several measurements, Motorfuelers certified that the production of one cubit foot of MagneGas with the particular equipment under use required an average of 122 W = 416 BTU Ī 5%. It should be stressed again that this is the total energy from the panel, thus including the internal losses of the DC rectifier. Alternatively, we can say that the arc is served by only 65% of that energy, corresponding to 79.3 W/cf = 270 BTU/cf.
The energy content of MagneGas was measured on a comparative basis with
the BTU content of natural gas (1,050 BTU/cf). For this purpose,
technicians of Motorfuelers, Inc. used two identical tanks, one of
natural gas and one of Magnegas, at the same initial pressure of 110 psi. Both tanks were used for 5 psi under the same flow to increase the
temperature of the same pot with the same volume of water. The ratio of
the two temperature increases is evidently proportional to the ratio of
the respective BTU content. Following several measurements, Motorfuelers, Inc. certified that MagneGas produced from the liquid here
considered has a minimum (see below) of 80% of the BTU content of
natural gas, corresponding to 871 BTU/cf Ī 5%.
During the tests, it was evident that the liquid of the reactor rapidly
increased its temperature, to such an extent that the tests had to be
stopped, and the equipment had to be cooled down, because the
temperature of the liquid could damage the seals. Following very
conservative estimates (see below),technicians of Motorfuelers, Inc.
certified that, jointly with the production of 1 cf of MagneGas, 122W =
416 BTU of electricity from the panel also produced a minimum (see
below) of 285 BTU of heat in the liquid.
In summary, 122 W/cf = 416 BTU/cf of electricity calibrated from the
panel produce one cf of MagneGas with 871 BTU/cf, plus heat in the
liquid conservatively estimated to be 285 BTU/cf. These measurements
imply the following Coefficient of Performance with all measurements
being averages with Ī5% error:
871 BTU/cf + 285 BTU/cf
---------------------------- = 2.78. (1)
Note that, if one considers the actual electric energy used by the arc
(which is 65% of the energy used in the above calculation corresponding
to 79.3 W/cf = 270 BTU/cf), then we have the following:
871 BTU/cf + 285 BTU/cf
----------------------- = 4.28. (2)
In releasing the above certification, Motorfuelers, Inc. noted that: 1)
The arc had a poor efficiency, because it was manually operated, thus
resulting in large variation of voltage, at times with complete
disconnection; 2) The BTU content of MagneGas was a minimum value,
because measured in comparison to natural gas with a burner that had
large carbon residue (thus showing poor combustion), while the burner of
natural gas was completely clean; and 3) The heat produced per each
cubic foot of MagneGas was partial, e.g., because it did not take into
account the increase in temperature of the metal reactor, pump, etc.,
for a weight of the order of 80 lbs.
6: THE CERTIFICATION OF LACK OF RADIATION
Immediately after the certification of the over-unity, I requested that TTL conduct a number of safety and health measurements, including all measurements on the possible emission of neutrons. First, I requested the verification and certification by an independent health physicist that Santilli’s PlasmaArcFlow Reactors does not emit radiation harmful to humans and the environment. For this purpose, Dr. David A. Hernandez, of Radiation Protection Associates, Dade City, Florida (tel. 352-567 9254) conducted comprehensive measurements via a number of radiation detectors placed all around the reactor, with particular reference to the only radiation that can possibly escape outside the heavy gauge metal walls of the reactor: low or high energy neutrons and hard photons. Under the presence of various eyewitnesses (including the technicians of the TTL laboratory and myself), none of the various counters placed in the immediate vicinity of the reactor showed any measurement of any radiation at all. As a result of these measurements, Radiation Protection Associates released an official Certificate that Santilli’s PlasmaArcFlow Reactor “has met, and exceeds in this case, the regulatory regulations seth forth in Florida’s Administrative Code, Chapter 64-E. Accordingly, the reactor is declared free of radiation leakage.”
7: THE ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES
HC and carcinogenic substances in the exhaust were measured to be reduced from about 138,000 ppm in gasoline exhausts, to about 120 ppm in the MagneGas exhaust (a 100 fold reduction). The oxygen balance of Magnegas resulted to be positive (that is, the oxygen expelled in the exhausts is bigger than the oxygen used for its combustion), with an emission of oxygen measured up to 14% - 15 % (MagneGas is the first and only combustible gas I know whose exhausts can sustain life). The CO2 content in the exhausts resulted to be of the order of 3%-4%, down from 9%-10% in gasoline exhausts, namely, percentages which can be controlled via chemical sponger and other CO2 absorbents.
It should be noted that, thanks to hadronic mechanics and chemistry,
Toups Technology Licensing has now acquired a new technology which
permits the industrial production of combustible gases with a
pre-determined energy and environmental characteristics. This remarkable
result is achieved via the judicious combination of the selected liquid,
the selected flow and the selected electric power. Consider, for
instance, other processes for the production of a combustible gas via an
underwater arc, such as those by Eldridge (U. S. Patent no. 603,058, of
1898), W. A. Dammann and D. Wallman (U. S. Patents nos. 5,159,900, of
1992, and 5,417,817 of 1995), W. H. Richardson, jr. (U. S. Patents nos.
5,435,274 of 1995, 5,692,459 of 1997, 5,792,325 of 1999), and others.
All these reactors produce a combustible gas with an unacceptable level
of CO2 in the exhausts (2% to 4% bigger than that of gasoline exhausts)
because the arc is stationary within the liquid, thus permitting the CO
to oxidize into the CO2. Santilli PlasmaArcFlow Reactor (Patents
Pending) removes the CO from the arc immediately following its
synthesis, thus permitting the achievement of a pre-determined low
content of CO2, which evidently becomes a function of the flow itself. A
similar situation holds for other features of the produced gas, which
can all be achieved according to pre-set standards.
The above comments clarify that the name MagneGas defines a class of
several different, clean, combustible gases, all possessing the same
novel chemical structure, and does not represent one single new gas.
More specifically, MagneGas produced by the indicated mixture of
antifreeze and brown sugar is suggested for metal cutting applications;
a different type of MagneGas is suggested for automotive use in lieu of
natural gas or other polluting fuels, and a still different type of
MagneGas produced by a different liquid is suggested for trucks and
heavy equipment in general.
8: THE PRELIMINARY CHARACTER OF THE RESULTS
It should be stressed that the measurements by Motorfuelers, Inc. refer to the very first prototype of Santilli’s PlasmaArcFlow Reactor, that in which the arc is manually initiated and maintained via the rotation of knobs advancing or retracting the carbon cathode (see Figure 2). As such, the measured over-unity is far from being the final value of the reactor.
FIGURE 2: A view of the first prototype of Santilli’s PlasmaArcFlow
Reactor used for the certification of 2..78 over-unity by Motorfuelers,
Inc., that with manual initiation and continuation of the arc, and
I have now constructed at TTL a new, completely automatic PlasmaArcFlow
Reactor, with the addition of an automatic feeder of the carbon rod
supplied by ArcAir, Inc., a Division of Tweco, Wichita, Kansas (tel.
316-942 1421), model ArcAirMatic^R N6000. This automatic feeder
initiates the arc via remote control, and maintains it at a constant
pre-set arc voltage via the control of the voltage every 50
milliseconds, and the automatic advancement or retraction of the carbon
rod. Numerous additional improvements have also been added.
FIGURE 3: A schematic view of the second prototype of Santilli’s
PlasmaArcFlow Reactor with vertical electrodes, and automatic feeder of
the carbon rod, which has been constructed along the structure of Figure 1.
This second prototype has efficiency greater than that of the first
prototype, because the arc voltage is kept constant in the former, while
the manual operation of the latter implies large variations of the arc
voltage, including its interruption.
I have measured the over-unity of the second automatic prototype,
although I do not intend to release the results before their formal,
verification and certification by an independent laboratory. I can only
say at this writing (September 29, 1999), that the over-unity of the
automatic PlasmaArcFlow Reactor is considerably bigger than that of the
first, manually operated prototype, as expected.
9: THE OVER-UNITY OF THE FIRST PROTOTYPE.
In my first presentation of the PlasmaArcFlow Reactor in Ref. , page 286, I conservatively predicted that the reactor in its first prototype would have an over-unity of 1.69.
The independent certification by Motorfuelers, Inc. has established an
over-unity almost double my conservative prediction. In fact, the first
reactor prototype resulted to have a double double-over-unity, in the
sense of having:
# A first double over-unity in the production of a combustible gas,
because the energy content of MagneGas (871 BTU/cf) is more than double
the electrical energy from the panel used for its production (416
BTU/cf). If the electric energy in the arc is used, the over-unity of
the gas alone becomes 3.22.
# A second double over-unity in the production of heat, because, after
adding the heat computer by Motorfuelers, Inc. the heat of the metal
reactor, pump, lines, etc., as well as its dissipation in air, the
energy in heating up the reactor per cubic foot of gas produced is also
more than double the electric energy used from the panel. If the
electrical energy sued in the arc is instead used, this second
over-unity is also bigger than 3.
In fact, the equipment currently under production schedule at TTL is
conceived for the dual function of producing an environmentally
acceptable metal cutting gas, as well as, jointly, of heat, the latter
being utilized via a radiator in line with the flow and equipped with
10. THE GAS PRODUCTION REACTOR, THE HEAT PRODUCTION REACTOR, AND THE
LIQUID RECYCLING REACTOR
The above measurements establish that the PlasmaArcFlow Technology permits the construction of various different reactors, among which I note:
# The gas producing reactor (Patents Pending), namely, a reactor which
is conceived to optimize the production of a clean combustible gas, and
minimize other aspects. The equipment for metal cutting MagneGas is
already under production schedule at TTL, and other models along this
line are under development.
# The heat producing reactor (Patents Pending), namely, the reactor in
which the primary purpose is the over-unity production of heat, while
the produced gas can also be noncombustible, such as nitrogen. It should
be stressed that the double over-unity in the production of heat
constitutes direct experimental evidence of the validity of the various
heat producing reactors proposed in Ref. , Papers IV and V. The
Hadronic Nitrogen Reactor of Ref. , p. 198 (that using heavy water
saturated with carbon rich solvents) is under construction, and I hope
to present the results in the near future.
# The liquid recycling reactor (Patents Pending), namely, the reactor in
which town sewage or other nonradioactive liquid waste, is forced to
flow through the electric arc, by being decomposed into three main
substances: a clean, combustible gas, solid precipitates good for
fertilizers, and water excellent for irrigation of organic products.
11. THE INCREASE OF THE DOUBLE-DOUBLE OVER-UNITY
By no means, the above double double-over-unity is final, because it can be improved in numerous ways. First, we have to remember that the over-unity of 2.78 refers to the very first, manually operated prototype, while the second prototype with automatic feeder and other improvements has already increased said 2.78 over-unity double-unity. Second, the energy content of the gas can be increased weight the increase of suitable chemicals in the liquid. The liquid used in the certification by Motorfuelers, Inc. was merely selected as providing a clean burning MagneGases, and it was not selected to maximize its energy content. Third, the heat acquired by the liquid also depend on its chemical structure, and can be enhanced according to a variety of reactors (see next section).
Above all, numerous tests conducted at TTL have established that the
over-unity increases nonlinearly with the electric power, although the
explicit nonlinear behavior has not been finalized at this time pending
additional tests. A significant increase of the over-unity is therefore
expected from future reactor having double the electric energy of the
current model (100 Kwh).
As an incidental note it should be indicated that, in theory, the volume
of the gas produced should increase with the length of the electric arc,
which, in turn, should increase with the arc voltage. However, contrary
to popular beliefs, the voltage of an underwater arc is automatically
set by nature for each given Kwh, and cannot be changed for a given
electrical energy. Therefore, according to extensive tests conducted at
TTL, a possible dependence of the over-unity from the voltage for a
fixed electric energy has no practical significance.
12: THE EVIDENT CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
The principle of conservation of energy is well known to be verified in its entirety, because the initial energy is not solely given by the electric energy, but instead by the sum of the electric energy plus the energy contained in the liquid. The conservation of energy then follows from the evident equation
Total energy produced (MagneGas plus heat)
---------------------------------------------------------- < 1, (3)
Total energy in (electrical energy plus energy in liquid)
where the value < 1 is due to dispersion, dissipation, and other
unaccounted losses. As a matter of fact, the electrical energy is
smaller than the energy in the liquid, to such an extent that it is a
mere “trigger” in the language of hadronic mechanics (or a catalyst, in
The energy in the liquid is not considered over-unity because it
is available either at no cost, or at a minor cost. More
specifically, the inclusion in the over-unity of the energy contained in
the water would make no sense, because water is provided by nature.
Similarly, the energy in other liquids is also not a factor because one unit
liquid provides 1,800 units of gas at ordinary temperature. The cost of
$ 3 per gallon of antifreeze then implies the cost of $ 0.0016 per
gallon of gas.
13: THE OVER-UNITY OF NUCLEAR POWER
The best example of universally admitted over-unity is that of nuclear power plants for which
Electrical Energy Output
-------------------------- = 10,000 or more (4)
Electrical energy input
in full compliance with the principle of conservation of the energy. The
fact that the excess energy originates from the fission of nuclei is well
We can say that nuclear reactors are designed to extract energy from
nuclei. The PlasmaArcFlow Reactor is designed to extract energy from
The big difference is that nuclear power reactors are notoriously
dangerous for humans and the environment because they emit very harmful
radiation, release highly radioactive waste, contaminate water, etc. By
comparison, the PlasmaArcFlow Reactor produces no
harmful radiation, does not leave harmful waste, does not
contaminate the environment, and produces a clean fuel.
15: ORIGIN OF THE DOUBLE DOUBLE-OVER-UNITY
The origin of the indicated double double-over-unity is one of the most complex problems I have been exposed to during my research life, because it requires, in a direct or subtle indirect way, totality of the current scientific knowledge, including particle physics, nuclear physics, atomic physics, molecular chemistry, superconductivity, etc.
Moreover, any individual who attempts to adapt the numerous and large
anomalies of the PlasmaArcFlow Reactor to quantum mechanics, a
discipline which will soon belong to the past millennium, is either
naive or in bad faith. Science can only be conducted in this case with
the opposite approach, adapting the theory to the experimental evidence.
This implies that NONE of the conventional quantum formulations at the
various levels is applicable for a scientific study of the origin of the
over-unity. Therefore, the quantum theories require appropriate
generalizations. The only invariant generalized theories I am aware of
are those of hadronic type. The indication of other theories, truly
generalized, truly invariant, and truly nonequivalent to hadronic
theories is solicited.
16. FORTHCOMING PAPERS
I plan to write a future technical article specifically devoted to the origin of the over-unity of the PlasmaArcFlow Reactor, following the availability of a number of measurements (e.g., the confirmation of an anomalous percentage of nitrogen in the gas which has been systematically detected until now). At this moment I can only indicate that the over-unity does not admit only one origin, because it is instead due to several origins, all properly inter-related, among which: 1) The de facto superconductivity of the arc, due to the collapse of the water resistance; 2) The mutation of magnetically unpolarized matter into a polarized form caused by the extreme magnetic fields of the arc, with consequential anomalous energy storage and release; 3) Numerous processes at the particle, nuclear, and molecular levels, not to exclude the stimulated synthesis of natural elements (such as nitrogen from carbon), which can explain the (relatively small) over-unity with an efficiency of one synthesis per one hundred billion molecules of the liquid.
Interested individuals can inspect Santilli’s PlasmaArcFlow Reactor, by visiting the laboratories of TTL in Largo Florida (located at about 1/2 hour distance from Tampa International Airport), following arrangements with the company (contact TTL Vice President James Doulgeris at 727-548 0918).
18. IMPORTANT NOTES
IMPORTANT NOTE 1: The BTU measurements of Magnegas conducted by Motorfuelers via a mere comparison of its heating capabilities with natural gas are empirical, and should not be considered as having final scientific character. Equally preliminary have been all others measurements of the BTU content of Magnegas conducted by Toups Technology Licensing over a one year period, including the lack of conclusive character of a BTU measurement conducted at a university laboratory via a bomb calorimeter. The difficulties are due to several, very peculiar anomalies of Magnegas, e.g., its very low needs of oxygen intake (for which most calorimeters cannot even burn Magnegas, let alone measure its energy content), the anomalous character if the energy storage as shown by new peaks in IR signatures of coonventional molecules, which denote new internal bonds,and require special burning procedures (e.g., sparks with very high voltage), and other anomalies completely absent in BTU measurements of conventional gases.
IMPORTANT NOTE 2: While other gases generally have unique characteristics,
MagnegasTM is a trade name to represent all gases whose chemical species is
that of Magnecules. As such, there are numerous different Magnegases, with
different chemical characteristics, depending on the liquid used for its
production. In particular, the BTU content varies dramatically with the
liquid used for its prediction. For instance, the PlasmaArcFlow technology
on tap water produces a gas with about 400 BTU; the same technology applied
to antifreeze produces a gas with about 600 BTU; etc. The liquid used for
the certification by Motorfuelers is TTL-X3, namely a liquid specifically
conceived for the PlasmaArcFlow Technology whose chemical composition is the sole property of Toups Technology Licensing.
 R. M. Santilli, “The physical laws of new, clean energies and fuels
as predicted by hadronic mechanics, Papers I, II, III, IV, and V”,
Journal of New Energy, Vol. 4, issue no. 1, pages 4-312, 1999.
IMPORTANT NOTE 3: Everybody is free to publish papers on
"Santilli's Magnegas^TM" and on the underlying "Santilli's PlasmaArcFlow^TM Technology"
without any need to obtain my advance authorization, PROVIDED that: 1) Any and all
such publications identify with clarity the origination in
the Copyrighted Ref.  provided below;
2) Said publications outline the content of Ref. 
as a necessary pre-requisite for allegations of
novelty; and 3) Said publications identify with clarity my patrnity. Individual
authors and their dishonest editors/publishers who
violate any of these scientific, ethical, and legal requirements will be
prosecuted via any possible mans permitted by civil and criminal laws.